The following are the tests doctors use to screen diabetes.
Fasting Plasma Glucose
For this test, the doctor requires a patient to not eat during the night and then takes a blood sample the following morning. The doctor checks the blood sugar level of the blood; two blood samples to increase accuracy. A blood sugar level of less than 100 mg/dl is normal; the patient does not have diabetes. A blood sugar level of 100 mg\dl to 125 mg/dl means the patient is in the prediabetes stage. If the patient does not change their lifestyle, they will get diabetes after some time. A blood sugar level of more than 126 mg/dl means the patient has diabetes.
This test screens the blood sugar level of a patient over a two to three months’ period. Like in the fasting plasma glucose test, the doctor takes two or more tests for accuracy. The A1C levels in a diabetic patient are more than 6.5. In prediabetes stage, the levels are somewhere between 6.4 and 5.7. People without diabetes have A1C levels below 5.7.
Oral Glucose Tolerance
Another test the doctor may conduct is the oral glucose tolerance test. In this test, the doctor requires the patient not to eat anything overnight and visit the clinic for the test the following morning. Once at the clinic, the doctor will screen the blood sugar level then administer a sugary fluid to the patient. The patient is then required to remain still as the activity would interfere with the blood sugar tests taken in one-hour intervals for the next two or three hours.
In this test, blood sugar level below 140 mg/dl is normal. Levels between 140 mg\dl and 199 mg\dl mean the patient is in the prediabetes stage. A figure more than 199 mg/dl and the patient is diabetic.
Urine analysis is conducted if the doctor thinks the patient might be having Type I diabetes. The test screens autoantibodies and ketones in the urine. If they are present, the patient has diabetes.
Diabetes screening is necessary if you have the symptoms mentioned earlier.